This basalt axe is from the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. The Anaiwan People rescued the artefact from development (Gostwyck Solar Farm) then returned the artefact back to country after the 3D model was made.
This axe is made from moderately fine-grained basalt. This was originally a complete edge-ground axe, but it was extensively reworked by percussion flaking and pecking prior to abandonment. The percussion flaking has removed most of the original edge-grinding, and it appears as though the pecking occurred both before and after the percussion reworking. The axe is cylindrical in cross-section, which is an unusual shape for Australian axes. It is reminiscent of the thick rectangular-profiled axes often made at the Daruka (Moore Creek) Axe Quarry near Tamworth, New South Wales. The Daruka axes were also made by a combination of flaking and pecking.
See the annotations for technological details about this stone tool.
The earliest-known edge-ground stone axes in the world are found in archaeological sites in Australia, and are over 40,000 years old. They were made continuously from the earliest occupation of the continent through to the recent past, and are still made in New Guinea today. Stone axes were made in vast numbers during the Middle and Late Holocene period, from about 10,000 years ago, and Aboriginal people developed extensive trade networks for axes made of particularly prized stones. The anthropologist W. E. H. Stanner, writing in 1933 about ceremonial trade on the Daly River of the Northern Territory, said that ‘there can be nothing more useless in the native economy than a pile of [stone axes] with nowhere to send them.’ Axes were also symbolically and ritually important, with story sites for axe quarries and mythological figures wielding stone axes as weapons. For instance, Namarrkon, an Ancestral Being in Arnhem Land in Northern Australia, uses stone axes affixed to his head, elbows, and knees to create the intense lightning in storms that signal the arrival of the monsoon. Axes were integrated within the cultural system in the historic period, and axe manufacture and use was embedded in various social roles. Stone axes in the recent past were usually mounted onto thin wood handles and affixed with plant resin or native bees wax.