Type:  MacCorkle Point

Location: Ohio



MoST ID: 2852

Pedestal Link: https://une.pedestal3d.com/r/M1RH-WVfmn

Model Author:  Emma Watt

This MacCorkle point from Ohio is made from Carter Cave chert.  Carter Cave chert outcrops in nonwestern Kentucky and southwestern Indiana.  MacCorkle points date to the Early Archaic period and were used between ca. 8500-9000 BP.

MacCorkle points are within the Rice Lobed family of points, which also includes the St Albans variety.  MacCorkle points are often exceptionally thin.  They were made by skilled bifacial percussion thinning, and the edges were resharpened frequently by well-executed invasive pressure flaking.  Aspects of flake overlap on some examples suggest that the basal notches were made early in the bifacial percussion-flaking process, before the distal end was thinned and shaped.  MacCorkle points likely functioned as hafted knives rather than projectile armatures.

The profound cultural and subsistence changes from the Paleoindian to the Early Archaic in North America was matched by a dramatic shift in the stone technology.  The fluted lanceolate points of the Paleoindian period, such as Clovis, transitioned to exotically-fluted types such as Cumberland points in southeastern North America, and Folsom on the Great Plains.  Eventually fluting was abandoned for less dramatic basal thinning, like that seen on Dalton points, and, eventually, lanceolate points were supplemented or replaced by an explosion of notched point styles in the Early Archaic period, after about 10,000 BP.  The earliest notched points in the Early Archaic are side-notched (e.g., Graham Cave, Big Sandy, Hardaway, Bolen), followed by corner-notched points (e.g., Kirk, Palmer, Lost Lake), with ‘bifurcated’ points (corner-notched or stemmed points with a notched base, like LeCroy, Kanawha, MacCorkle, and St Albans) emerging towards the end of the Early Archaic period.  Side-notched (e.g., Thebes, St Charles), basal-notched (e.g., Calf Creek), and stemmed (e.g., Hardin, Kirk Stemmed) point variants co-occurred with corner-notched points in complex patterns through most of the Early Archaic period, reflecting considerable regional and chronological diversity in point styles, driven by population growth and intensified trends towards differing cultural expression in circumscribed regions.  These point styles—all of them manufactured by bifacial flaking—functioned variously as dart points and hafted knives.