Type:  Levallois Point

Location: Israel



MoST ID: 2110

Pedestal Link: https://une.pedestal3d.com/r/-cfBf2SHLe

Model Author:  Mary-Anne Stone

This chert Levallois point is from Israel.  The flake was struck from a recurrent unidirectional Levallois core.  The Levallois method refers to a specific way the core was flaked to create a Levallois flake, which was then used as a tool.  Triangular Levallois points like this one are characteristic of the ‘Tabun B’ industry at Tabun Cave, ca. 45,000-75,000 BP.

This Levallois point was probably struck from a unidirectional core.  The convexities for striking this flake were created by removing two flakes which converged and overlapped at their distal ends.  This created a triangular-shaped zone of high mass on the core face.  This Levallois point was struck from that triangular mass, and hence was triangular in shape without needing further retouching.  That is, the shape was ‘predetermined’ by the way those prior flake removals converged.  This is referred to as a ‘convergent’ preparation mode, and the core it was struck from was ‘unidirectional-convergent’.  The edges of the point were damaged by trampling or rolling after the tool was discarded.

The Levallois reduction method emerged by about 300,000 BP in Africa from the preceding Acheulean, handaxe-focused technologies.  The shift was significant in human evolution, as it marks the emergence of advanced levels of strategic planning in stone-flaking, which in turn implies cognitive capabilities that required enhanced working memory.  These are hallmarks of high-level cognition like that seen in Homo sapiens, although the Levallois method was also applied by Homo neanderthalensis and other Homo species that lived during this period.  In the Levallois method, the core is flaked by hard-hammer percussion to deliberately produce a flake of a specific shape; the flake shape is ‘predetermined’ by the way the core is set up.  Levallois cores are bifacial—flaked on two faces—with one face carefully domed to create the high mass that will be removed in striking off the Levallois flake.  The opposite face is flaked non-invasively to create platforms for striking off the ‘doming’ flakes from the core face.  In this sense, there is a ‘hierarchical’ conception of the core, where one face is only used to prepare platforms, and the opposite face is only used to create the desired Levallois flakes.  In technical parlance, this doming process involved manipulating the ‘convexity’ (the degree of doming) of the core face; lateral convexities are created by flaking along the sides of the core, and distal convexity is created by flaking the end of the core.  Once the domed core face is set up, a platform is carefully prepared at the end of the dome, and the dome is struck off as the Levallois flake.  The core may then be reworked, and another Levallois flake struck off, and so on.  A variety of Levallois approaches have been defined by archaeologists.