An arrowhead is the armature affixed to the tip of an arrow. Stone was a preferred raw material for arrowheads throughout prehistory.
The bow may have been invented by ca. 64,000 BP at Sibudu Cave in South Africa. Archaeologists have identified quartz backed microliths with high-velocity impact damage, but it is possible that they were dart armatures for use with a spearthrower, rather than arrowheads. Impact damage on stone tools may indicate the use of the bow-and-arrow in Europe by ca. 45,000 BP, and in the Dyuktai culture of Siberia and the Jōmon culture of Japan by ca. 16,000 BP.
However, the earliest unambiguous evidence for bow-and-arrow technology is a wood bow fragment recovered from a Magdalenian period site at Mannheim-Vogelstang, Germany, dated to ca. 18,000-17,500 BP, and Stellmoor in Germany, where arrows and a bow fragment were recovered dating to ca. 12,700-11,600 BP. The remains of five complete bows from ca. 7000 BP were discovered at the Holmegårds site in Denmark. These early European archers used arrows armed with stone microliths.